Tag Archives: Canadian Propaganda

Active Comics Collective Tactic of Warning Children

     Propaganda regarding foreign powers and its assumptions with stereotypical criminal behaviours is a result of prejudice. This paper will discuss the eighth issue of Active Comics (1942), focusing on illegal drugs in conjunction with propaganda in Canada during World War II. In Active Comics No. 8, the stories have caricatures of stereotypical Indigenous and Japanese people, in relation to drugs and other criminal behaviours. The racist undertones in comics during World War II regarding cultures untypical to  “white-European” Canadians and involving the issue of drugs (specifically cannabis and opium) should be addressed.

     The first story in the issue, “The Dixon of the Mounted,” is about a criminal investigation surrounding the illegal distribution and abuse of cannabis. As well, “Captain Red Thornton,” features Japanese caricatures in association with other forms of crime. In addition to the topic of crime, on page 16, there is a “funny page” glorifying a criminal activity. To contrast, the regular displays of prejudice, one of the stories, “ The Misadventures of Mild Will,” is the opposite of the other stereotypical stories. The story has Indigenous caricatures that could be deemed rational, are not inflicting violence, and are victims of senseless violence. The placement of this comic is used for ironic comedy. This comedy uses the opposite of what is stereotypically done in order to create humor.  

     In Active Comics No. 8, possessing illegal drugs and criminal activities, such as murder and arson, is in clear affiliation with figures of Japanese and Indigenous backgrounds. This reveals the writer’s intentions of propaganda and wartime subliminal messages. The purposeful connections insinuate that the reason for criminal activity is the characters being from foreign powers, giving the readers a preconceived political wartime stance. The objective of this research paper is to determine why these propagandistic messages were placed in children’s comics during World War II. Ultimately, the the writers’ tactics enforce the idea that drugs and foreigners were bad in a collective manner.                     

The Association of Drugs to Certain People

     “Dixon of the Mounted” by Ted Steel, reveals the highest level of stereotyping and criminalizing “foreign” peoples. In this comic, the Dixon travels to a lifeless and grim snowy landscape to find an Indigenous criminal. The illustrated Indigenous caricature that wears exaggerated traditional native clothing is being sought out because he smokes and sells marijuana – “marihuana” as its called in the story. The aboriginal man also commits other crimes due to the consumption of the drug, such as setting the cabin on fire in hopes of murdering the Dixon before being caught. Henceforth, visualization of the correspondence of marijuana with a man of a foreign background was displayed to children. The story, “Dixon of the Mounted,” are collectively meant to scare children into not smoking marijuana, due to the irrational and criminal behaviour it creates. Additionally, the comic persuades the reader to believe that Indigenous people are the influencers and the primary sources of this substance abuse.

The Stance of Canada with Native and Japanese Citizens

     Japanese and Aboriginal cultures faced much oppression during their years in Canada following World War II. Japanese immigration was brought into Canada for cheap labour, which caused opium distribution to arise as a societal issue (Boyd 26). The belief that Japanese people are the reason for drug distribution could be routed to the historical event of The Opium war between China and the British Empire (839 – 1860.) Therefore, the assumption that opium is connected to Japanese people will be derived from this historical event. Also, Canada in the 19th (and continuing shortly into the 20th century) is known to have made a negative impact on  Indigenous people due to the conditions and difficult circumstances they were put through. More specifically, during the years before World War II (roughly 1934-1943), Indigenous people in Canada were put under much supervision and isolation. This can be noted from viewing a 1936 news article titled “Canada’s Indians. The article title itself reveals the possessive approach that Canada’s government took towards Indigenous cultures; they were under “general supervision,” were “minors under the law,” and additionally, a government department called Department of Indian Affairs existed (48). Found in the National Museum of Canada, the archival book Canada’s Indian Problem, by Janness Diamond, states that “. . . to encourage any merging of the protected races with their protectors, because white people, particularly those of Anglo-Saxon . . . have strong prejudices against intermarriage with coloured peoples. (Japan, we may notice in passing, likewise discourages the intermarriage of her nationals with the Ainu)” (Diamond 379). When Active Comics No. 8 displays these cultures in a manipulative way, it caused these prejudices to influence the reader and allow the future generation of adults to have the same destructive beliefs.

Opinions with Drugs in Combination with Crime

     The legalization of marijuana in Canada took years of persuasion and debates. It has come to reality with multiple precautions and procedures in 2018. Opinions and debates dated back to the early 19th century reveal Canada’s foundation of formulating the new legalization. From this, misconceptions of drug association may arise due to miscommunication brought from fear of an unknown substance; much like the fear of unknown and foreign cultures to Canada.

     One misconception in Active Comics No. 8  is that criminal behaviour arises from smoking marijuana. Nonetheless, that belief has been statistically proven to be false in the sociological article Cannabis and Crime: Findings From a Longitudinal Study by Willy Pedersen. He proves that the use of cannabis does not lead to any continued action of criminal behaviour. Conversely, the use of cannabis-related crimes is highly apparent (Pedersen 116). It is also apparent that there is not much research surrounding the use of cannabis and non-cannabis related crimes. This implies that avoiding this research was done purposely so that it is automatically assumed that smoking marijuana was the leading cause of all crimes and not just marijuana-related offenses. The collection of the comics, also known as The Canadian Whites, represented the effects of marijuana as the causes of the comic book characters criminal commitments. To feature this, falsehoods and false evidence are presented multiple times through; action-packed, war hero and comedic stories. Active Comics has done this to display to a young audience that drugs, crime, and foreign powers, collectively and separately, are things to be afraid of. A newspaper article, “Dope Stimulation and Hot Jazz,written in 1943 by J.V McAree, said that “Crooks of various kinds are fond of [marijuana]” (McAree 8).  Also, the 1948 National Film Board documentary Drug Addict follows an inmate in jail who becomes interested in drugs. These past World War II mediums purposely highlighted criminals with marijuana and always correlate them with each other. In order for the Canadian Whites to display this as well, it is evident that extreme literary misrepresentations have to be used to stronger convey the same message.

The Reason for the Correlation
Fig. 1. Cartoon Drawing, Japanese Gentlemen Hullee Home Pleez! Canadians Here!!! 20000034-018. 1939-1945 Canadian War Museum. https://www.warmuseum.ca/collections/artifact/1361339/?q=cartoon+drawing&page_num=1&item_num=17&media_irn=3141295

     Figure 1 displays two Japanese men running from Canadians. The description to the image is: “This is a poster we had when entertaining some Canadian boys. Maple leaf is a little bit of ‘home’ you kindly sent me” (Canadian War Museum).  

    The description reveals how a source of entertainment for “Canadian boys” was another representation of Japanese caricatures being stereotypically manipulated. Figure 1 is also manipulated to sound like a Japanese accent, which further adds to the racism. The same racist illustration is also visible in the story “The Misadventures of Mild Will.” The comic manipulates the dialogue to make the caricatures emphasize their accents which insinuate their lack of intelligence. An example of the same verbiage in the comic is, “[w]hat’sa idear, buttin’in? Ah’, supposed to be the hero in this hyar comic strip!” (Steel 31). Along with in “Captain Red Thorton,” by Al Cooper, the Japanese enemies are illustrated much like in the war artifact; they both have farfetched stereotypical features (Cooper 49). The illustrations and verbiage are placed to create humor for the intended audience.

Humour is displayed in false, fabricated cliches of foreign characters

     In the war adventure story,  “Captain Red Thorton,” the “predators”, or antagonists, are Japanese characters against  ”white-European” characters. An interesting illustration from this story on the front cover of the comic is a close-up shot of a Japanese “predator.” The Japanese caricatures expression is angry; which is evident from the exaggerated lines along his face to make him seem more aggressive.

     The article “This is Our Enemy” by Paul Hirsch focuses on the comic titled All Star Comics. Hirsch talks about how the demographic and perception of the comics were race-themed mediums that were cheap sources of entertainment. Also, the article goes into detail about how choosing the medium as a source of portraying propaganda stereotypes is a universal and complex method. All Stars Comics is American, and the article was published in California. By looking at this American artifact in comparison to the Canadian comic, it is interesting to note the similarities between them. They both portray representations of the race to persuade a person to think intended messages of government manipulated messages. The reasons for North American tactics in communicating propaganda messages to children are apparent. Adults during this period would most likely be aware of the political news happening around the world and the implications of this to their home country. Children, on the other hand, would not know as much. By hinting at these political views from the country they currently reside in, they can educate the children on what to believe through comics (although it may be factual or not).

Children’s Media as a way of Communicating Propaganda
Fig. 2. Dave Fleischer (d). Max Fleischer (p). With Cab Calloway. Minnie the Moocher, 1932,Talkartoons.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N7VUU_VPI1E

     The 1940s messages of propaganda are displayed in many multimedia forms. The article “Anglo-American Anti-fascist Film Propaganda in a Time of Neutrality” explains Charlie Chaplin’s film, The Great Dictator, to be an example of a manipulation of media to display wartime messages. The article also goes into to detail about what makes a propaganda film (“predator vs. prey,” “hero vs. villain”) create “mass persuasion” (Cole).

     Messages of drug use are also apparent in children’s motion pictures. In Max Fleischer’s, Minnie the Moocher, the animated characters undergo a chaotic-dreamlike scenario in which inanimate objects come to life and appear as a sort of hallucination. That movie experience creates a correlation with the sensation one may get from being under the influence drugs (fig. 2).

     After studying both of these motion pictures, one can understand why Active Comics would use a children’s medium to incorporate drugs and wartime messages as a tactic. Although this comic was on a smaller scale of popularity then these Hollywood entertainments, it still portrays the exact techniques to emphasize the message trying to be installed into youth’s minds. Minnie the Moocher displays Hollywood’s creation of the fascination of substance use in a way that is appealing to children (by using cartoons, comedy, and catchy music). The same question of why Max Fleischer decided to create Minnie the Moocher is similar to the question of why The Canadian Whites created certain stories in Active Comics. Both children targeting mediums display content that seems to be confidential to children, giving much insight into the creator’s intentions of the audience.

        The government’s way of trying to communicate with the youth of WWII is proven to be useful in current studies. This is because using comic books helps children explore their creativity, be entranced in the comic book character’s adventures, and stimulate visual senses according to the article, “The Native Comic Book Project: Native Youth Making Comics and Healthy Decisions. This article discusses the positive impact that comic books have on Indigenous children who may suffer consequences of substance abuse or other mentally harming encounters.

Manipulation of Children for Wartime Efforts

     After examining all of Active Comics No. 8 and cross-referencing adult mediums of WWII (newspapers, films, articles) to the content found in the comic, Canadian government intentions become clear. By collectively showing drugs, negative displays of foreign figures and actions of hate in crime fighting and adventure stores, a child may be manipulated to believe that all of these fabrications are believable. From this, that child may now be more heavily interested and inclined to participate in wartime activities, whether it be by becoming physically involved in the war or sharing the message that war is good. Youth become more involved and informed stance in political behaviours. Active Comics displayed content to children that were intended to create humor and action while simultaneously warning them of crimes by manipulating Canada’s oppressed races, and ergo, creating both motive and bias in children’s effort in the war.

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Works Cited

Boyd, Neil. “Anti- Asiatic riots led to Canada’s first anti-drug laws in 1908.” Canadian           Speeches, July 2001, p. 26. Academic OneFile ,       http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A79352921/ZONE?u=rpu_main&sid=ZONE xid=5dd3c4e6

Cartoon Drawing, Japanese Gentlemen  Hullee Home Pleez! Canadians Here!!! Canadian    War Museum, 1939-1945. www.warmuseum.ca/collections/artifact/1361339/?q=cartoon drawing&page_num=1&item_num=17&media_irn=3141295.

Cole, Robert. “Anglo-American Anti-Fascist Film Propaganda in a Time of Neutrality: The Great Dictator, 1940.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 21, no. 2, June 2001, pp.  137–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/014396801200 51488 .

Fleischer, Max, and Willard Bowsky. “Minnie the Moocher.Youtube, Talkertoons, 11 Mar 1932,          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HaZOXF83zBg

Hirsch, Paul. “‘This Is Our Enemy’: The Writers 2019; War Board and Representations of Race in Comic Books, 1945.” Pacific Historical Review 83, no. 3, 2014, pp.  448–86.

Malleck, Dan. When Good Drugs Go Bad: Opium, Medicine, and the Origins of Canada’s Drug Laws. Vancouver, CANADA: UBC Press, 2015. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ryerson/detail.action?docID=3440661

Legault, E.T. (w) and M. Karn (a). “Dixon of the Mountain.” Active Comics , no. 8, March 1942, pp. 1-9. Canadian Whites Comic Book Collection, 1941-1946. RULA Archives and Special Collections, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

Legault, E.T. (w) and M. Karn (a). “The Misadventures of Mild Will.” Active Comics , no. 8, March, 1942, pp. 1-9. Canadian Whites Comic Book Collection, 1941-1946. RULA Archives and Special Collections, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

Montgomery, Michelle, Brenda Manuelito, Carrie Nass, Tami Chock, and Dedra Buchwald. “The Native Comic Book Project: Native Youth Making Comics and Health Decisions.” Journal of Cancer Education 27,  2012, pp. 41–46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-012-0311-x .

Pedersen, Willy, and Torbjà ̧rn Skardhamar. “Cannabis and Crime: Findings from a LongitudinalStudy: Cannabis and Crime.” Addiction 105, 2010 pp. 109–18.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02719.x .

Writer, Linton Burkett Post Staff. “Marihuana Dangerous, Agents Say: Drug Loses Urge                 Leading to Crime; Results Worse Than Opium Derivatives.” The Washington Post (1923-1954); Washington, D.C. July 13, 1943.

 

 

 

 

Identifying the Robot as the Enemy in Active Comics: No. 15

© Copyright 2018 Natalia Orasanin, Ryerson University

Introduction

In the midst of the Second World War, the growing trade deficit Canada experienced with the United States resulted in the Canadian government implementing the War Exchange Conservation Act, in an effort to stabilize the Canadian dollar (Bell 1). Canada banned all imports that were considered non-essential, deeming books and comics as luxury items  (Nguyen 1). As a result, Canadian publishers began producing their own comics books, referred to as The Canadian Whites, due to their black and white interiors (Bell 1). Although the production and sale of Canadian Whites such as Active Comics, Commando Comics, and Dime Comics plummeted after the ban was lifted near the end of the war, these comics can be viewed as a portal or window to Canadian society during wartime. Superhero characters were especially popular for soldiers on front lines, representing strength and patriotism — the same characteristics associated with soldiers during the war (Babic 111). Therefore, the character representation in comics provides a glimpse at the historical attitudes and perspectives of the time in which they were produced (Babic 111). Additionally, many comics reflect the anxieties surrounding war time, including the shifting roles of women in society, fears of losing the war to Axis powers, pressure on increased production, and related issues (Babic 111).

I will be examining the ways in which robots are portrayed throughout Active Comics: No. 15. (1944), specifically three key areas: “King Fury and the Robot Menace,” (22 – 28) the front cover, as well as an activity page that prompts the reader to identify all of the hidden robots throughout the issue (11). In the same way that the public view of soldiers was associated with superhero characters, robots in the comic are much more than merely characters, they function as mirrors to the representations of Axis powers during wartime. In this essay, I will show how the portrayal of robots as mechanic, mindless followers is representative of the way Germans and other Axis powers were viewed during the Second World War, and how this portrayal was utilized in comics and newspapers in order to identify the enemy within popular discourse. Further, the identification of the robot as the enemy highlights the resemblance between the activity page and government propaganda during World War II, both instructing individuals to remain on the look out for enemies who are under the control of a dangerous leader.

The “Robot” and the Enemy

The term “robot” was incredibly common in public discourse and Canadian newspapers during World War II. “Robot” appears hundreds of times in The Toronto Daily Star, The Globe and Mail, Hamilton Spectator and many other news sources. Notably, in these articles the word is excessively used to describe members of the Axis powers. In an article, titled “Human Robots” by George Axelsson featured in the Globe and Mail, both the terms “civilian robots” and  “a senseless robot, mechanically obeying his master’s voice” are used to describe the Germans (Axelsson 1). Comparatively, in an article in the Hamilton Spectator, Japanese soldiers are described as having the mentality of robots, completely dependant upon commanding officers and “helpless” without their guidance (“Nothing to Fear From Jap Entry; Men But Robots”). Additional terms found in articles range from “Nazi robots,” “Robots of the German airforce, [who need] a slave – driving general to tell them what to do,” to describing Germans as “slaves” and British pilots as “free men, self – reliant and ground in the dignity of manhood” (“Knights on Winged Steeds”). These terms are all degrading and speak to the lack of agency and mindlessness associated with robots, relating these attributes to the Germans and the Japanese Axis powers.  Another way in which the word robot is used in these articles is in reference to the robot bomb, even coincidentally a 1944 article titled “Menace of the Robot Bomb” in the Globe and Mail. The robot bomb, created by the Germans, is essentially a pilotless bombing aircraft specifically designed to attack the British. The fact that it is pilotless, and unmanned is important as it is a machine that is set out to perform a particular task, decided by those in possession of it. Parallels are also drawn when one takes into consideration that the robot bomb is a an aerial bomb, and that in the comic “King Fury and the Robot Menace” the Germans escape with the robot menace on a soundproof plane that King Fury and the Canadian Military cannot detect (28). In the comic, the robot is considered “good” when in the possession of the Americans, and “bad” when in the possession of the Germans, indicating that the “goodness” or “success” of the machine is completely dependant upon who has control. Seeing as the Germans had predominant control of the robot bombs, and they gain control of the robot in the comic, the robot symbolizes  an empty vessel for potential evil.

The Robot Menace

When comparing the portrayal of robots within World War II newspapers to Active Comics,  the identification of the robot as the enemy is present in the comic “King Fury and the Robot Menace” by Kurly Lipas, as well as the front cover. King Fury pays a visit to Dr. Tone and his daughter Tonee, and is welcomed by a robot identified as Dr. Tone’s newest invention (23). Dr. Tone is excited about the robot, as he can exercise his control over the robot with a remote control, stating that the government can make great use of his invention (23). It was not uncommon in the wartime for robots to be used as symbols for the portrayal of the enemy, as psychologically, many individuals associate robots with manufacturing and militarization (Cheng 1). In her analysis of Kakoudaki’s Anatomy of a Robot, Jennifer Rhee writes that robots are often a mechanical reflection/representation of our own human bodies, and our vulnerability to being controlled by forces external to us (Rhee 408). Further drawing from literary examples, Kakoudaki states that robots are often used to provide labour through elements of control, and that this relationship between the robot and the possessor brings forth notions of dehumanization, objectification and slavery (Rhee 409). In “King Fury and the Robot Menace,” this element of control is largely prevalent as the German’s overlooking Dr. Tone’s home break in to steal the robot. When they enter Dr. Tone’s home, Dr. Tone is so busy directing the robot that one of the Germans knocks him out and gains possession of the remote control. The robot then attacks King Fury and the Germans escape on a soundless plane with the robot, undetected by King Fury or the military (27). The robot in the story demonstrates no sense of agency, and surrenders completely to the individual in possession of the remote control. Control implies that the robot can be in the wrong hands, and Dr. Tone’s distraction when directing the robot to follow him as the Germans invade his home is ultimately the reason he is caught off guard and gets the remote control taken away from him. When the robot attacks Dr. Tone and King Fury as a result of this, the robot also becomes the enemy. Furthermore, the front cover of the issue features a terrified young woman in the arms of a robot that appears as though it is going to hurt her. Yet again, the robot is not captured in any positive light, and the human being is innocent and under the threat of the robot. The cover illustrates the identification of the robot as an enemy, and subsequently the fear of this enemy.

Destroying the Robot Menace

Cover, Active Comics No. 15, January 1944, Bell Features Publishing.
Dingle, Adrian. Cover, Active Comics No. 15, January 1944, Bell Features Publishing. 

There is no denying a rhetorical trend in newspapers describing Axis powers as being robotic, mechanized, thoughtless, and incredibly vulnerable to external influence and control. In “King Fury and the Robot Menace,” the German agents are often being commanded. For starters, it appears as though they are on a mission to steal the robot to bring back to Germany, commanded by an authoritative figure. When in possession of the remote control, the German agent states, “It’s as if I were the robot itself” (24). Ultimately, this quote suggests a mirroring between the German agent and the robot, that is only reinforced by the reverse shot sequence of the Nazi attacking Tonee, and the robot attacking King Fury, both of them striking the other in the head (26). In this way, the robot and the German operate as one in the same. The comic creates these parallels yet again in the second last panel, when King Fury tells Tonee, “If the Nazis ever build up an army of those robots our boys would have no chance against them… somehow with my strength and God’s help, I’ll destroy the robot menace” (28). Language plays a key role here, as the comic features the heroic character King Fury, who “Utilizes his great strength to help destroy the axis dictators,” and “Pits his strength and wits against the robot menace” (22). The term “menace” used to describe the robot directly implies a negative connotation, whereas the terms “King,” “strengths” and “wits” used to describe King Fury attribute his man power to goodness, identifying King Fury as the hero. Moreover, when one of the German agents says “Dis vill be a great day for the Reich,” (in reference to the Third Reich) on the plane, the text only reaffirms the rhetoric that these men are under the control of a leader and carrying out an instructed task. 

Spot the Robots 

"Even Under This Friendly Roof There May Be Enemy Ears." Wartime Security Poster, 1939 - 1945. Canadian War Museum.
“Even Under This Friendly Roof There May Be Enemy Ears.” Wartime Security Poster, 1939 – 1945. Canadian War Museum.

Seeing as the comic establishes the robot as an enemy that the protagonists fear, it is also important to note the preventative measures the comic is advocating for in resistance of these enemies, and how this is a reflection of World War II government propaganda. Comics were often directly marketed to children due to their cheap price, accessible narratives, adventure and sense of escapism (Babic 14). Many of the messages found in the comics directly correlated with the roles children had in society during that time. When the war started, new responsibilities were given to children as their parents either entered the workforce or left to fight overseas (Cook 1). Children were considered involved in the war effort, with posters around schools encouraging children to be on the lookout for spies and to avoid spilling any information or talk that would help the enemy (Cook 1). Spy work as an activity is exemplified on page 11 of Active Comics: No. 15, as the page features a competition titled, “How Many Robots can you Find on the Cover” (11). The competition asks readers to tear off the cover of the comic and circle all of the robots that they can find, looking at every “figure, tree, rock, boat, gun, etc” (11). The page illustrates the activity of being on the lookout for robots, as they may be hiding. Seeing as the robots are portrayed in a negative light throughout the entirety of the comic, the activity speaks to being perceptive and on the lookout for the enemy. The responsibility that is being put on the reader in this comic is exemplified in much of the propaganda regarding security during World War II in Canada. As demonstrated in the “Wartime Security” poster, there was a climate of fear built on the notion that the Germans were constantly listening, stating that enemy ears could be everywhere. Thus, propaganda instructed individuals to look beneath the surface, look out for enemies, and to police themselves in order to ensure national security. The comic does this in the form of  a competition, but it is nevertheless the same idea of surveying others due to a fear that has been ingrained in the individual based on the idea that the enemies can be anywhere. 

Conclusion

The portrayal of the robots within the issue relates to the narratives that dominated government propaganda and newspapers at the time, tying into a much larger representation of the axis powers within the media. Just on the cover, the issue establishes the threat, featuring a woman being defeated by a robot, surrounded by rubble. The portrayal of the robot in “King Fury and the Robot Menace” as being entirely susceptible to control and whose sole purpose is as an object controlled to achieve a means to an end calls to mind the discourse of the time comparing the Germans and Japanese as being controlled by an evil leader, machine like in their actions. Robots as machine like and in the possession of the enemy can also be viewed as a symbol for the robot bombs during World War II and the climate of fear perpetuated by these pilotless bombs, used heavily by the Germans. Overall, the use of robots in Active Comics: No. 15 establishes the enemy as a looming threat, challenging the reader to search for the robots just as children and adults were told to survey those around them. The activity page, when combined with the portrayal of robots throughout the issue, suggests that the enemy was using unassuming vessels to perform dangerous tasks, that could be found everywhere and anywhere, successfully heightening the public’s paranoia towards them.


Works Cited

Axelsson, George. “Human Robots.” Globe and Mail, 13 November 1944.  Democracy at War:  Canadian Newspapers and the Second World War, Canadian War Museum.

Babic, Annessa Ann.  Comics as History, Comics as Literature : Roles of the Comic Book in Scholarship, Society, and Entertainment, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2014. ProQuest, doi: 978-1-61147-557-9.

Bell, John. “Comic Books in English Canada.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. 8 July 2015. www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/comic-books-in-english-canada.

Cook, Tim. “Canadian Children and the Second World War.” The Canadian Encyclopedia. 12 April 2016. www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/canadian-children-and- wwii.

Cheng, Ching-Ching, Kuo-Hung Huang, and Siang-Mei Huang. “Exploring Young Children’s Images on Robots.” Advances in Mechanical Engineering, vol. 9, no. 4, 2017. ProQuest, doi: 10.1177/1687814017698663.

Dingle, Adrian, et al. Active Comics: No. 15. Bell Features and Publishing Company Limited, 1944. RULA Archives and Special Collections, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

“Even Under This Friendly Roof There May Be Enemy Ears.” Canadian War Museum. 1939 – 1945, https://www.warmuseum.ca/collections/artifact/1019615/?q=security+poster&page_num=2&item_num=5&media_irn=4248.

“Knights on Winged Steeds.” Globe and Mail, 22 August 1940. Democracy at War: Canadian Newspapers and the Second World War, Canadian War Museum.

“Menace of the Robot Bomb.” Globe and Mail, 31 July 1944. Democracy at War: Canadian Newspapers and the Second World War, Canadian War Museum.

Nguyen, Linda. “Artist Part of the Golden Age of Canadian Comic Books; Helped to Create this Country’s Superheroes After WWII, Designed Graphics, Logos for Products.” Toronto Star, 2006. ProQuest, https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/docview/ 439026882?pq-origsite=summon.

“Nothing to Fear From Jap Entrey; Men But Robots.” Hamilton Spectator, 11 December 1941. Democracy at War: Canadian Newspapers and the Second World War, Canadian War Museum.

Rhee, Jennifer. “Anatomy of a Robot: Literature, Cinema, and the Cultural Work of Artificial People by Despina Kakoudaki (Review).” Science Fiction Film and Television, vol. 10, no. 3, 2017, pp. 407-412. Project MUSE, https://muse-jhu-edu.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/article/ 674425.


Images in this online exhibition are either in the public domain or being used under fair dealing for the purpose of research and are provided solely for the purposes of research, private study, or education.